Glucose plays a vital role in various metabolic functions in the body. So, the glucose level must be maintained periodically. A glucometer is a home measurement system, i.e., used to test the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. The device is almost a palm-sized, works on battery so that the device is portable.0.3 to 1 microliter of blood is enough for the test. It is a critical element of home-based glucose monitoring, also known as a glucose meter or blood glucose monitoring device. It determines the approximate concentration of glucose present in the blood.
Anton Hubert (Tom)Clemens invented the first glucometer on September 14, 1971, A small drop of blood is obtained through the skin using a lancet. This drop of blood placed on a disposable test strip is used to calculate the level of glucose present in the blood.
RAW MATERIAL USED IN GLUCOMETER
Many natural (unprocessed) materials make a glucose monitoring kit. The plastic case that covers the printed circuit board and sensors help to build the meter itself. A liquid crystal display (LCD) helps to show the readings of the blood glucose. The lancet is composed of a plastic housing having a stainless-steel needle in it. The test strips consist of porous fabric or material like polyamide, polysulfide cellulose, or polyolefin. Carboxymethylcellulose, water tetramethylbenzidine, horseradish peroxide, dialyzed carboxylate vinyl acetate, ethyl copolymer latex, and, glucose oxidase. There is also a water-based hydroxyl elastomer with silica and ground titanium dioxide.
ADVANTAGES OF GLUCOMETER
· Patients with “Type 1” diabetes and “Type 2” diabetes is in need to test their sugar levels several times a day, which we can do using a glucometer.
· Patients suffering immediate raise or sudden down of glucose level could check their glucose level immediately and consult a doctor.
· Memory chips in it store the details about the test is done.
· Data transfer to another device is more accurate in figuring the results compared to the lab test results.
· It helps to detect and confirm hypoglycemia.
· Infections can be detected since high blood sugars may be a sign of the same or illness. Timely assistance can save many health problems.
· It provides readings within a few seconds; then, the average is 4 to 5 seconds.
FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDER WHILE CHOOSING A GLUCOMETER
There are many kinds of meters present in the market for at-home use. These vary from basic models that only read blood sugar levels to more advanced versions that provide features like a memory for storing information.
The cost of blood glucose meters varies from different brands. Before picking out a meter, you should keep the following factors in your mind. Once you have your meter, please work with your doctor to learn how to use it properly.
· For coverage details, check with your insurance provider. Some of them restrict coverage to particular models or curtail the total number of strips allowed.
· Glucometers may vary in price, but you should always keep the cost of test strips in your mind.
· Always check whether your chosen meter and test strips are comfortable in handling. Watch if results are precise on the screen or not.
· Chose your meter as per your requirements for features like large buttons and bigger screens and audio, which may be convenient for people with impaired vision.
· Information storage and retrieval also varies in different devices.
· Go for a meter that comes with a manual, demonstrating clear instructions and guidance for the correct way to use a meter.
TYPES OF GLUCOMETER
These are the most commonly used glucometers in which blood samples apply to the test strip, and within seconds, provides your glucose level.
A bigger picture of spikes and ranges for your glucose is supplied Continuous Glucometer always supplies a bigger picture of peaks and scales for your glucose all over day and night. A Continuous Glucometer functions through a tiny sensor inserted under your abdominal skin. The sensor tests glucose every few minutes and translates the readings into dynamic data.
These glucometers have not come into the market until now. Noninvasive glucometers do not require blood samples. Instead, low powered radio waves are passed through blood-rich areas of the body to provide glucose levels.
WORKING OF A GLUCOMETER
Those who use glucometer must be knowing that the strips which come together with the glucometer play a critical role due to which they have more value as compared to the glucometer.
One end of this strip is for placing the blood sample while the other one remains in the glucometer. When we insert, the glucometer turns on immediately.
When we place the blood sample, the glucometer automatically shows the reading after three to four seconds, and when we add a strip in the glucometer, the electrodes which are present on the piece makes a circuit in which it works. The blood sensing part of the strip has an enzyme called Glucose Oxidase, which reacts with the glucose present inside our blood and forms gluconic acid. The acid will promptly respond with another chemical, present on the pieces calls ferricyanide, and gives out [Fe(CN)6]4 as a result.
Now ferrocyanide gets on the electrode of the portion. Now the process is carried away by the glucometer. Glucometer delivers a small amount of current in the wire. Then the ferrocyanide on the electrode resists the current, and the device calculates this resistance.
And then the meter which calibrates for various amounts of sugar level corresponds to the specific amount of resistance offered by ferrocyanide present on the electrode of the strip.
This data always calibrates in analog form. Then the corresponding value to the value of resistance is converted into digital form and is displayed on the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) present on the glucometer.
Altogether, it is an electrochemical device in which we can read the resistance obtained by the chemical([Fe(CN)6]3−), and the reading of the glucometer varies based on the glucose present in the blood sample.